Matthew 25:31-46

Some of you might know that we Brothers follow an ancient monastic practice of taking our meals in silence, often accompanied by a brother reading aloud.  As of late, we have been reading a biography of Dietrich Bonhoeffer.

Bonhoeffer was an early twentieth century theologian and Lutheran pastor.  In popular memory, he is known chiefly for his staunch opposition to the Nazi’s murderous regime and the Christian Church’s shameful acquiescence in the horror.

After a long period of fearless soul-searching examination, and tremendous spiritual anguish, Bonhoeffer become complicit in a plot to kill Adolf Hitler.  The conspiracy was uncovered and Bonhoeffer, along with his co-conspirators, was butchered in an execution specifically designed to prolong the throes of painful death.  The SS carried out the execution on Hitler’s orders in April, 1945 just days before his suicide and Germany’s surrender ending World War II in Europe. 

Bonhoeffer, a brilliant theologian and prolific writer, had much to say about Christianity and its place and responsibility in the modern world.  Never cutting himself any moral slack, Bonhoeffer struggled mightily with his decision to become involved in the failed plot to kill Hitler.  He did not justify his action but accepted that he was taking guilt upon himself as he wrote “when a man takes guilt upon himself in responsibility, he imputes his guilt to himself and no one else. He answers for it…Before other men he is justified by dire necessity; before himself he is acquitted by his conscience, but before God he hopes only for grace.”1 He went to his death holding to the sincere belief that God would judge him for his decision to become involved in murder.

Bonhoeffer, never one to mince words, spoke with scathing language about the compromises that the church had made with the forces of evil.  He never tired of reminding his congregations that evil and injustice are very present realities in our world.  And that the cost of this reality rebounds on all of us.  With spiritual eyes, he seems to have had a gift which allowed him to stare straight into the abyss that opened before him and to do so without blinking.

Bonhoeffer came to his beliefs about the nature of evil through his reading of Holy Scripture which he taught and believed to be God’s word written to and for its listeners.  I most definitely do not mean to imply that he was a literalist.  Quite the contrary, Bonhoeffer advocated prayerful and meditative engagement with scripture.  From that kind of approach he came to teach that when we read or hear scripture we must assume the posture that we are listening to God’s specific word to and for us.  Adamantly insisting that “anything short of obedience to God smacked of [what he called] ‘cheap grace.’ Actions [he said] must follow what we believe; else one could not claim to believe it.”2

Throughout this past week I’ve been trying to read this parable about the sheep and goats as though it were specifically written for me.  I’ve been trying to imagine that I am hearing God’s word spoken directly to me.  Like so many parables it’s difficult to hear and take in.  It’s rather stark.  It’s about the Last Judgment; about God’s righteous judgment.  Can you imagine, with me, that these words are spoken directly and specifically to you?  That this is God’s word to you and for you this day.

What does it say to you?  It forces me to ask myself a question.  My question is who am I?  Who am I?  Am I a sheep or am I a goat?  Who am I?

Sheep and goats are alike in some ways but there are differences so great that Jesus said that goats would not inherit the kingdom of Heaven.  Sheep are gentle, quiet, innocent animals.  They do not give the shepherd lots of problems.  If you are having trouble with your sheep, you’re probably looking at a goat.  If sheep are not cared for properly they will become someone’s dinner.  Sheep are defenseless animals.  They are vulnerable and to be comfortable they need their shepherd.

Whereas sheep are gentle, quiet and easily led, goats are pushy, self-sufficient, and headstrong.  Most goats are naturally horned.  Those goat horns can sometimes bring harm to another.  They rear and butt in order to establish dominance.  Goats do not require supervision or care as sheep.  Unlike sheep, goats revert back to their wild conditions if given the chance.  Goats are often pushy and can cause undercurrents and dissension.  Turmoil and agitation are part of their nature.3

The parable tells us what sheep do and what goats do.  Sheep do the bidding of the shepherd.  Goats do not.

If this is God’s word spoken directly and specifically to me then what is it saying to me.  What is it asking me to do?

Would I get a lot of push-back from you if I were to say today that there is something terribly wrong in our country and our world?  That’s what I want to say here this morning.  I want to say that I believe there is something terribly wrong.

I am not an economist. I don’t have the solution for the Euro zone crisis.  I don’t have the formula for either getting our fiscal house in order, or reducing the scale of personal and governmental debt, or balancing the Federal budget.  I don’t know how we solve those problems.  But I think I know that if this is God’s word spoken to us then when we do set about to find solutions we have to do so with the poor in mind.  We must do something about these problems but always with their impact on the poor in mind.

We cannot forget the poor and the powerless; even if it is nothing more than speaking up on their behalf.  Speaking to people we know; risking putting ourselves out there when we hear others forgetting about our responsibility, as a nation, to the poor; speaking for and on behalf of those who have taken to the streets to protest policies and policy makers that protect and perpetuate an economic structure fraught with systemic injustice.  Can we live in the word of God while acquiescing in policies that punish the poor for being poor and reward greed and dishonest wealth?

What would this parable, if spoken directly to us, mean for something like the growing chasm between rich and poor in this country?  What does it say about a trajectory begun back in the 1970’s in which a smaller and smaller group of individuals controls more and more wealth, and let’s face it, in our country that often means more and more power?  Can we continue to move further and further into the future with a widening gap between rich and poor?  If this is the word of God spoken to us can we allow fewer and fewer people to acquire and control more and more of the power and wealth of our country while many remain poor and while others slip into poverty?  Should a relatively small and privileged group of financiers, many of them already very wealthy, be protected from risk while millions have their economic lives destroyed?  If this is the Word of God spoken directly to us can we acquiesce in the doing of such things?

With whom are we going to identify?  Are we faced with making a choice?  What will that mean?  I don’t know, maybe you don’t believe that this is God’s word spoken to you this day.  I don’t know what you believe.  But, if you were to believe it what might you do?

A good and dear friend of mine, who is something of an expert in iconography, pointed out to me the other day that icons of the Good Samaritan traditionally give the Samaritan and the man he rescued the same face.  I think that this is something we might keep in mind when we examine the plight of those who go without.  The icon points to the fact that these people are the same people and that only their circumstances, at this particular moment in their lives, are different.  It seems to imply that when we step out to do justice we will, in time, come to enjoy the fruits of justice in our own lives.  We are doing something for others and mysteriously, in the Divine economy, we are doing it for ourselves.  Our hearts grow, our ability to identify with the other grows and compassion grows.  In a profoundly real sense we are doing what St. Paul tells us we are intended to do:  we are becoming Christ.  It is in becoming Christ that we Christians find the assurance and courage to speak and act in the name of God’s love and word spoken to us and all his beloved children.

1.     Bohoeffer, Dietrich.  Meditating on the Word.  Cambridge:  Cowley Publications.  1986, pp. 88-89.

2.     Metaxes, Eric.  Bonhoeffer:  Pastor, Martyr, Prophet, Spy.  Nashville:  Thomas Mellon Company.  P. 240.

3.     Parrot, Joy.  Watchman, Watchman What of the Night.  Website:  Symbology of the Sheep and Goats, pp 88-90.

4.     I am grateful to the Reverend James McReynolds for sharing his insights on the iconography of the Parable of the Good Samaritan.


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  1. Marta on June 13, 2018 at 00:16

    I have spent some time reading works of D.B. He worked out a relationship w/ God and did what he believed God called him to do: preach, pray, and lead by teaching God’s word; among that service was his own sacrifice to take a stand against oppression.
    Our relationship w/ God is up to each of us. I believe that deepening our relationship w/ God is the first calling by responding to the God within each of us, and part of that is the service discussed above. Sheep traditionally are a sacrificial animal; goats may be troublemakers, but they are often used as protectors of other animals (like donkeys on which Jesus rode into Jerusalem). God “calls” each of us to use our talents (“talents”?) in His service.

  2. Marcia Peterson on June 11, 2018 at 09:25

    Responding to the devotion two reflections. The poor are with us because we fail to be generous or said another way greed is a profound sin which causes terrible destruction. Also the poor are us–poor in spirit, poor in compassion. Also the Navajo people use the rule of 7 in making decisions for their nation. They ask how will this affect the people 7 generations forward. If all people used that rule, there might be far fewer poor deciisions.
    Grateful for the thoughts, prayers, comments.

    • Rick Porter on June 11, 2018 at 11:13

      If we view sin as a failure to love and examine our actions in light of how they impact others, we reach the same place as the Navaho. One or action or inaction always has consequences. They are never neutral. Thank you for your insights.

  3. Rick Porter on June 11, 2018 at 07:26

    In addition to Bonhoeffer, I suggest reading about Mother Teresa, now Saint Teresa. Jesus shared two insights with respect to our obligations to the poor. First is the great commandment to love God and to love our neighbor as our self. The second was the announcement that the poor will always be with us. So, all of these poor are our neighbors to whom we have an obligation to provide help. But Jesus’ Words and the obvious facts show that any efforts to “help” all of the poor are doomed to frustrating failure. And that is where Mother Teresa’s example is so critical. She arose each morning in the early hours and went out into the streets in silence to find the dying children in the gutters. She would bring them back to her modest enclosure, clean them, feed them if it was possible and love them them till they died. She never solved, or really even made a dent in, the big problem of abject poverty in the city. But she surrounded countless people, young and old, with gentle loving care as they passed into the arms of Jesus. Though we not all called to Saint Teresa’s mission, her determined steady graceful way of dealing with each individual problem as it presented itself is a model we can all emulate whatever or role in life. Need is always visible in each of our lives. Let’s us ask God for the grace to see Lazarus at our gate and to stop and give him the assistance only we can give in the small envelop of time. God bless.

    • SusanMarie on June 11, 2018 at 10:27

      Beautiful response, Rick. Thank you.
      And thank you again, Br. Robert, for this excellent sermon.

  4. Pamela Forbes on July 25, 2017 at 17:24

    Today’s word, and the sermon from which it is drawn, seem especially apposite today, as Congress grapples with stripping millions of our brothers and sisters of their access to health care. What am I prepared to do about this situation? I don’t know. But I do know that by myself I can do nothing. Only in and through God’s heart can our society be made whole.

  5. SusanMarie on July 25, 2017 at 08:00

    Excellent sermon! Thank you! You have given me my marching orders today. Very inspiring.

  6. Carol Comer on July 25, 2017 at 07:48

    Something to really think about and mull over my response. Thank you for such a thoughtful pertinent offering.

  7. Dawn Christie Beaver on July 25, 2017 at 07:20

    Thank you, Br. Robert, for sharing your wonderful insight and thought. I’m reading this on Tuesday, July 25, 2017, from the link in today’s email, “Speak – Brother, Give Us A Word”, and I think your words hold even more truth in the economic and political climate we currently have. What am I going to do? I don’t know yet, but I believe that if I stay open, God will direct me.

  8. Rhode on October 6, 2016 at 07:52

    Our pastor once remarked he could see his parishioners visibly squirm when he preached about money. It is a difficult reconciliation to realize Jesus is totally serious about the rich barely getting into heaven and he is not talking just to the very rich he is speaking to me. Money and comfort anesthetizes. God has to shout and prod to make himself heard. Sheep and goat alike… we are bound to our treasured lifestyle. God will never leave us. Todays great lesson for me… am I living as if I really believe that?

    • Christina on October 6, 2016 at 10:11

      It’s difficult. Many of those who do have plenty share it My income is adequate. But if I squirm when the sermon speaks to the congregation about the need for more money, I always feel that to some extent it is preaching to the already converted. I sometimes take up the collection: many of the envelopes do not convey the contents, but I know that the man who adds 25c. to the collection plate is giving what is possible for him. I cannot tell what the sealed envelopes contain. I can only be responsible for what I can give to a needy world. And, that’s not going to make much difference by itself, but perhaps with others whose giving is small, it does make a difference. We are blessed. Christina

  9. Paul on November 18, 2015 at 13:15

    I end each day with the prayer, “God, how did you teach me today?” I’m not in the 1% by any means, but I might be in the 10 or 15 percent, certainly the 20%. Maybe I should start with the question I ask each morning as I get out of bed, “God how can I serve you today?” I pray that I will courageously and boldly live into the answer.

    • Marie on October 6, 2016 at 07:26


  10. Jane Anne Gleason on November 18, 2015 at 10:36

    I believe Br. Robert is speaking to us today about the need to welcome with open arms the Syrian refuges looking for safe refuge both in Europe and the United States. As Christians we are called by Jesus to welcome these ‘strangers’ to a place of safety and healing, not close our doors in fear. When we close our doors and our eyes, we become the goats.

  11. Michael on November 18, 2015 at 08:40

    I find it refreshing and honest that Brother Robert has no answer for the various problems we all face, but he is still willing to address the the questions. Sometimes it is more important to begin the journey than to know the destination

    • Ruth West on October 8, 2016 at 13:47

      Thank you, Br. Robert, for this good homily. It is Michael’s post which speaks most significantly to me. Although we have no total answers to the disparaging gap between rich and poor, we must begin the journey to solve it, one situation, one person at a time. My income is quite limited as a retiree on a fixed income, but I pay my tithe and do what little beyond that I can. God blesses me abundantly. I know I must continually strive to do more.
      In America, even those of us on the lower end of the financial scale, are so rich compared to those who, in countries such as Haiti who have recently been hit once more with natural disasters. It is easy to turn our heads and look away. Lord, have mercy. Christ, have mercy and help us to always give and to accept the gifts of others with gratitude.

  12. Julianna Hodge on November 18, 2015 at 08:28

    Thank you, Bro. Robert, for
    your honest look at this scripture. These words ring
    so true today- 4 years later.
    God’s blessings as you continue to reveal a true picture of Christ to the world.

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